1. Samo, T. J., S. Smriga, F. Malfatti, B. P. Sherwood, and F. Azam. 2014. Broad distribution and high proportion of protein synthesis active marine bacteria revealed by click chemistry at the single cell level. Frontier in Marine Sciences: Aquatic Microbiology 1: 48.

  2. Smriga, S., T. J. Samo, F. Malfatti, J. Villareal, and F. Azam. 2014. Individual cell DNA synthesis within natural marine bacterial assemblages as detected by'click'chemistry.

  3. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 72: 269-280.

  4. Pedler, B. E., L. I. Aluwihare, and F. Azam. 2014. Single bacterial strain capable of significant contribution to carbon cycling in the surface ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111: 7202-7207.

  5. Jiao, N., C. Robinson, F. Azam, H. Thomas, F. Baltar, H. Dang, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, M. Johnson, D. L. Kirchman, and B. P. Koch. 2014. Mechanisms of microbial carbon

  6. sequestration in the ocean-future research directions. Biogeosciences Discussions 11: 7931-7990.

  7. Malfatti, F., V. Turk, T. Tinta, P. Mozeti-ì, M. Manganelli, T. J. Samo, J. A. Ugalde, N. Kova-ì, M. Stefanelli, and M. Antonioli. 2014. Microbial mechanisms coupling carbon and

  8. phosphorus cycles in phosphorus-limited northern Adriatic Sea. Science of the Total Environment 470: 1173-1183.

  9. Schuerings, J., A. Jentsch, V. Hammerl, K. Lenz, H. A. L. Henry, A. V. Malyshev, J. Kreyling, M. Zech, R. Zech, and K. Rozanski. 2014. Recurrent winter warming pulses enhance

  10. nitrogen cycling and soil biotic activity in temperate heathland and grassland mesocosms. Biogeosciences Discussions 11: 7797-7822.

  11. Thompson, A., B. J. Carter, K. Turk-Kubo, F. Malfatti, F. Azam, and J. P. Zehr. 2014. Genetic diversity of the unicellular nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria UCYN-A and its prymnesiophyte host. Environmental microbiology 16: 3238–3249.


  1. Buck, K. N., F. Azam, B. G. Mitchell, and M. Zhou. 2013. The role of organic ligands in iron cycling and primary productivity in the Antarctic Peninsula: A modeling study. Deep-Sea

  2. Research 2: 112-133.

  3. Collins, D. B., A. P. Ault, R. C. Moffet, M. J. Ruppel, L. A. Cuadra-Rodriguez, T. L. Guasco, C. E. Corrigan, B. E. Pedler, F. Azam, and L. I. Aluwihare. 2013. Impact of marine

  4. biogeochemistry on the chemical mixing state and cloud forming ability of nascent sea spray aerosol. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118: 8553-8565.

  5. Guasco, T. L., L. A. Cuadra-Rodriguez, B. E. Pedler, A. P. Ault, D. B. Collins, D. Zhao, M. J. Kim, M. J. Ruppel, S. C. Wilson, and R. S. Pomeroy. 2013. Transition Metal Associations with Primary Biological Particles in Sea Spray Aerosol Generated in a Wave Channel. Environmental science & technology 48: 1324-1333.

  6. Jiang, M., K. A. Barbeau, K. E. Selph, C. I. Measures, K. N. Buck, F. Azam, B. Greg Mitchell, and M. Zhou. 2013. The role of organic ligands in iron cycling and primary productivity in the Antarctic Peninsula: A modeling study. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 90: 112-133.

  7. Prather, K. A., T. H. Bertram, V. H. Grassian, G. B. Deane, M. D. Stokes, P. J. DeMott, L. I. Aluwihare, B. P. Palenik, F. Azam, and J. H. Seinfeld. 2013. Bringing the ocean into the

  8. laboratory to probe the chemical complexity of sea spray aerosol. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110: 7550-7555.


  1. Baudoux, A., R. W. Hendrix, G. C. Lander, X. Bailly, S. Podell, C. Paillard, J. E. Johnson, C. S. Potter, B. Carragher, and F. Azam. 2012. Genomic and functional analysis of Vibrio

  2. phage SIO-2 reveals novel insights into ecology and evolution of marine siphoviruses. Environmental microbiology 14: 2071-2086.

  3. Garren, M., and F. Azam. 2012. New directions in coral reef microbial ecology. Environmental microbiology 14: 833-844.

  4. Lander, G. C., A. C. Baudoux, F. Azam, C. S. Potter, B. Carragher, and J. E. Johnson. 2012. Capsomer dynamics and stabilization in the T= 12 marine bacteriophage SIO-2 and its

  5. procapsid studied by CryoEM. Structure 20: 498-503.

  6. Samo, T. J., B. E. Pedler, G. I. Ball, A. L. Pasulka, A. G. Taylor, L. I. Aluwihare, F. Azam, R. Goericke, and M. R. Landry. 2012. Microbial distribution and activity across a water mass frontal zone in the California Current Ecosystem. Journal of plankton research 34:802-814.


  1. Beardsley, C., S. Moss, F. Malfatti, and F. Azam. 2011. Quantitative role of shrimp fecal bacteria in organic matter fluxes in a recirculating shrimp aquaculture system. FEMS

  2. microbiology ecology 77: 134-145.

  3. Eloe, E. A., F. Malfatti, J. Gutierrez, K. Hardy, W. E. Schmidt, K. Pogliano, J. Pogliano, F. Azam, and D. H. Bartlett. 2011. Isolation and characterization of a psychropiezophilic

  4. alphaproteobacterium. Applied and environmental microbiology 77: 8145-8153.

  5. Garren, M., and F. Azam. 2011. Corals shed bacteria as a potential mechanism of resilience to organic matter enrichment. The ISME journal 6: 1159-1165.

  6. Jiao, N., G. J. Herndl, D. A. Hansell, R. Benner, G. Kattner, S. W. Wilhelm, D. L. Kirchman, M. G. Weinbauer, T. Luo, and F. Chen. 2011. The microbial carbon pump and the oceanic

  7. recalcitrant dissolved organic matter pool. Nature Reviews Microbiology 9: 555.

  8. Jiao, N., and F. Azam. 2011. Microbial carbon pump and its significance for carbon sequestration in the ocean. Microbial carbon pump in the ocean 43-45.


  1. Jiao, N., G. J. Herndl, D. A. Hansell, R. Benner, G. Kattner, S. W. Wilhelm, D. L. Kirchman, M. G. Weinbauer, T. Luo, and F. Chen. 2010. Microbial production of recalcitrant dissolved organic matter: long-term carbon storage in the global ocean. Nature Reviews Microbiology 8: 593-599.

  1. Garren, M. and F. Azam. 2010. A new method of counting bacteria associated with coral mucus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76: 6128-6133.

  1. Malfatti, F., T.J. Samo, and F. Azam. 2010. High-resolution imaging of pelagic bacteria by atomic force microscopy and implications for carbon cycling. The ISME Journal 4: 427-439.

  2. Smriga, S., S.A. Sandin, and F. Azam. 2010. Abundance, diversity, and activity of microbial assemblages associated with coral reef fish guts and feces. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 73: 31-42.

  3. Rypien, K.L., J.R. Ward, and F. Azam. 2010. Antagonistic interactions among coral-associated bacteria. Environmental Microbiology 12: 28-39.

  4. Uitz, J., D. Stramski, A. C. Baudoux, R. A. Reynolds, V. M. Wright, J. Dubranna, and F. Azam. 2010. Variations in the optical properties of a particle suspension associated with viral

  5. infection of marine bacteria. Limnology and Oceanography 55: 2317-2330.


  1. Bourne, D.G., M. Garren, T.M. Work, E. Rosenberg, G.W. Smith, and C.D. Harvell. 2009. Microbial disease and the coral holobiont. Trends in Microbiology 17: 554-562.

  2. Garren, M., L. Raymundo, J. Guest, C.D. Harvell, and F. Azam. 2009. Resilience of coral-associated bacterial communities exposed to fish farm effluent. PLoS ONE 4(10): e7319.

  3. Malfatti F. and F. Azam. 2009. Atomic force microscopy reveals microscale networks and possible symbioses among pelagic marine bacteria. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 58 :1-14.

  4. Manganelli M., F. Malfatti, T.J. Samo, B.G. Mitchell, H. Wang, and F. Azam. 2009. Major role of microbes in carbon fluxes during austral winter in the Southern Drake Passage. PLoS

  5. ONE 4: e6941.


  1. Beardsley, C., S.M. Moss, and F. Azam.  2008.  Effect of storage temperature on prokaryotic cell counts and community composition analysis from fixed and filtered seawater samples. Helgol Marine Research 62: 123-127.

  2. Dinsdale, E.A., O. Pantos, S. Smriga, R.A. Edwards, F. Angly, L. Wegley, M. Hatay, D. Hall, E. Brown, M. Haynes, L. Krause, E. Sala, S.A. Sandin, R.V. Thurber, B.L. Willis, F. Azam, N. Knowlton, and F. Rohwer. 2008. Microbial ecology of four coral atolls in the Northern Line Islands. PLoS One 3:e1584.

  3. Garren, M., S. Smriga, and F. Azam. 2008. Gradients of coastal fish farm effluent and effects on coral reef microbes.  Environmental Microbiology 10: 2299-2312.

  4. Mayali X., P.J.S. Franks, and F. Azam. 2008.  Cultivation and ecosystem role of marine Roseobacter clade-affiliated cluster bacterium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74:

  5. 2595-2603.

  6. Mayali, X., P.J.S. Franks, Y. Tanaka, and F. Azam.  2008.  Bacteria-induced motility reduction in Lingulodinium polyedrum (Dinophyceae).  Journal of Phycology 44: 923-928.

  7. Samo, T.J., F. Malfatti, and F. Azam.  2008.  A new class of transparent organic particles in seawater visualized by a novel fluorescence approach.  Aquatic Microbial Ecology 53: 307 321.


  1. Azam, F., and F. Malfatti. 2007. Microbial structuring of marine ecosystems. Nature Reviews Microbiology 5:782-791.

  2. Hamasaki, K., A. Taniguchi, Y. Tada, R.A. Long, and F. Azam. 2007. Actively growing bacteria in the inland sea of Japan, identified by combined bromodeoxyuridine immunocapture

  3. and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73:2787-2798.

  4. Mayali, X., P.J.S. Franks, and F. Azam.  2007.  Bacterial induction of temporary cyst formation  by the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum.  Aquatic Microbial Ecology 50: 51-62.

  5. Mueller, R.S., D. McDougald, D. Cusumano, N. Sodhi, S. Kjelleberg, F. Azam, and D.H. Bartlett. 2007. Vibrio cholerae strains possess multiple strategies for abiotic and biotic surface colonization. Journal of Bacteriology 189:5348-5360.

  6. Not, F., R. Gausling, F. Azam, J.F. Hiedelberg, and A.Z. Worden.  2007.  Vertical distribution of picoeukaryotic diversity in the Sargasso Sea.  Environmental Microbiology 9: 1233-1252.

  7. Pomeroy, L.R., P.J.L. Williams, F. Azam, and J.E. Hobbie.  2007.  The microbial loop.  Oceanography 20:  28-33.

  8. Steward, G.F., L.B. Fandino, J.T. Hollibaugh, T.E. Whitledge, and F. Azam.  2007.  Microbial biomass and viral infections of heterotrophic prokaryotes in the sub-surface layer of the

  9. central Arctic Ocean.  Deep Sea Research Part I - Oceanographic Research Papers 54:  1744-1757.

  10. Umani, S.F., P. Del Negro, C. Larato, C. De Vittor, M. Cabrini, M. Celio, C. Falconi, F. Tamberlich, F. Azam.  2007.  Major inter-annual variations in microbial dynamics in the Gulf of

  11. Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) and their ecosystem implications.  Aquatic Microbial Ecology 46: 163-175.


  1. Casas, V., J. Miyake, H. Balsley, J. Roark, S. Telles, S. Leeds, I. Zurita, M. Breitbart, D. Bartlett, F. Azam, and F. Rohwer. 2006. Widespread occurrence of phage-encoded exotoxin

  2. genes in terrestrial and aquatic environments in Southern California. FEMS Microbiology Letters 261:  141-149.

  3. Worden, A.Z., M. Seidel, S. Smriga, A. Wick, F. Malfatti, D. Bartlett, and F. Azam. 2006. Trophic regulation of Vibrio cholerae in coastal marine waters. Environmental Microbiology 8: 21-29.


  1. Bartlett, D.H. and F. Azam. 2005. Chitin, cholera, and competence. Science 310:  1775-1777.

  2. Fandino, L.B., L. Riemann, G.F. Steward, and F. Azam. 2005. Population dynamics ofCytophaga-Flavobacteria during marine phytoplankton blooms analyzed by real-time quantitative

  3. PCR. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 40:  251-257.

  4. Long, R.A., D.C. Rowley, E. Zamora, J. Liu, D.H. Bartlett, and F. Azam. 2005. Antagonistic interactions among marine bacteria impede the proliferation of Vibrio cholerae. Applied and

  5. Environmental Microbiology 71:  8531-8536.

  6. Purdy, A., F. Rohwer, R. Edwards, F. Azam, and D.H. Bartlett. 2005. A glimpse into the expanded genome content of Vibrio cholerae through identification of genes present in

  7. environmental strains. Journal of Bacteriology 187:  2992-3001.


  1. Azam, F., A.Z. Worden. 2004. Microbes, Molecules, and Marine Ecosystems. Science 303: 1622-1624

  2. Hamasaki, K., R.A. Long, and F. Azam. 2004. Individual cell growth rates of marine bacteria, measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 35:  217-227.

  3. Mayali, X., Azam F. 2004. Algicidal bacteria in the sea and their impact on algal blooms. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 51: 139-144

  4. Verdugo, P., A.L. Alldredge, F. Azam, D.L. Kirchman, U. Passow, and P.H. Santschi. 2004. The oceanic gel phase: a bridge in the DOM-POM continuum. Marine Chemistry 92:  67-85.

  5. Zutic, V., V. Svetlici, T. Radic, F. Malfatti, D. Degobbis, and F. Azam. 2004. Controlled ecosystem carbon flow experiment in the northern Adriatic Sea. Periodicum Biologorum 106:  1-6.


  1. Bidle, K.D., M.A. Brzezinski, R.A. Long, J.L. Jones, and F. Azam. 2003. Diminished efficiency in the oceanic silica pump caused by bacterially-mediated silica dissolution. Limnology

  2. and Oceanography. 48: 1855-1868.

  3. Brzezinski, M. A., J. L. Jones, K. D. Bidle, and F. Azam. 2003. The balance between silica production and silica dissolution in the sea: Insights from Monterey Bay, California applied to the global data set. Limnology and Oceanography. 48: 1846-1854.

  4. Long R.A., A. Qureshi, D.J. Faulkner and F. Azam. 2003. A Quinolinol antibiotic produced by a marine Alteromonad, its ecological impact on the microbial loop. Applied and

  5. Environmental Microbiology, 69: 568-576

  6. Mourino-Perez, R.R., A.Z. Worden, and F. Azam. 2003. Growth of Vibrio cholerae O1 in red tide waters off California. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69:  6923-6931.


  1. Bidle, K.D., M. Manganelli and F. Azam. 2002. Regulation of diatom silicon and carbon preservation by temperature effects on bacterial activity. Science 298: 1980- 1984

  2. Breitbart, M., P. Salamon, B. Andresen, J. Mahaffy, A. Segall, D. Mead, F. Azam, and F. Rohwer. 2002. Genomic analysis of an uncultured marine viral community. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99:  14250-14255.

  3. Fuchs E., J.H. Jaffe, R.A. Long, and F. Azam. 2002. Thin light sheet microscopy applicable to microbial oceanography. Optics Express 10:  145-154.

  4. Riemann, L. and F. Azam. 2002. Widespread N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine uptake among pelagic marine bacteria and its ecological implications. Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

  5. 68: 5554-5562

  6. Rohwer, F., V. Seguritan, F. Azam, and N. Knowlton. 2002. Diversity and distribution of coral-associated bacteria. Marine Ecology Progress Series 243: 1-10


  1. Azam F. and R.A. Long. 2001. Sea snow microcosms. Nature 414: 495 -498.

  2. Bidle K.D. and F. Azam. 2001. Bacterial control of silicon regeneration from diatom detritus: significance of bacterial ectohydrolases and species identity. Limnology and Oceanography. 46: 1606-1623.

  3. Fandino, L.B., L. Riemann, G.F. Steward, R.A. Long and F. Azam. 2001. Variations in bacterial community structure during a dinoflagellate bloom analyzed by DGGE and 16S rDNA sequencing. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 23: 119-130.

  4. Grossart, H.P., L. Riemann and F. Azam. 2001. Bacterial motility in the sea and its ecological implications. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 25: 247- 258

  5. Long R.A., F. Azam. 2001. Microscale patchiness of bacterioplankton assemblage richness in seawater. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 26:  103-113.

  6. Long R.A., F. Azam. 2001. Antagonistic interactions among marine pelagic bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67:  4975-4983.

  7. Rohwer, F., M. Breitbart, J. Jara, F. Azam and N. Knowlton. 2001. Diversity of bacteria associated with the Caribbean coral Montastraea franksi. Coral Reefs. 20: 85-91.

  8. Rohwer, F., V. Seguritan, D.H. Choi, A. Segall, and F. Azam. 2001. Production of shotgun libraries using random amplification. BioTechniques. 31:  1-7.


  1. Grossart, H.P., G.F. Steward, J. Martinez and F. Azam. 2000. A simple, rapid method for demonstrating bacterial flagella. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66: 3632-3636.

  2. Rohwer, F. and F. Azam. 2000. Detection of DNA damage in prokaryotes by terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66: 1001-1006.

  3. Rohwer, F., A. Segall, G. Steward, V. Seguritan, M. Breitbart, F. Wolven and F. Azam. 2000. The complete genomic sequence of the marine phage Roseophage SIO1 shares homology with nonmarine phages. Limnology and Oceanography 45: 408-418

  4. Riemann, L., G.F. Steward and F. Azam. 2000. Dynamics of bacterial community composition and activity during a mesocosm diatom bloom. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66: 578-587.

  5. Steward, G.F., J.L. Montiel and F. Azam. 2000. Genome size distributions indicate variability and similarities among marine viral assemblages from diverse environments. Limnology and Oceanography. 45: 1697-1706.


  1. Azam, F., S. Fonda Umani and E. Funari. 1999. Significance of bacteria in the mucilage phenomenon in the northern Adriatic Sea. Ann. Ist. Super. Sanita, 35: 411-419

  2. Bidle, K.D. and F. Azam. 1999. Accelerated dissolution of diatom silica by marine bacterial assemblages. Nature 397: 508-512

  3. Pinhassi, J., F. Azam, J. Hemphala, R.A. Long, J. Martinez, U.L. Zweifel and A. Hagstrom. 1999. Coupling between bacterioplankton species composition, population dynamics, and organic matter degradation. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 17: 13-26.

  4. Riemann, L., G.F. Steward, L.B. Fandino, L. Campbell, M.R. Landry and F. Azam. 1999. Bacterial community composition during two consecutive NE Monsoon periods in the Arabian Sea studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of rRNA genes. Deep Sea Research Pat II - Topical Studies in Oceanography 46:  1791-1811.

  5. Steward, G.F. and F. Azam. 1999. Bromodeoxyuridine as an alternative to 3H-thymidine for measuring bacterial productivity in aquatic samples. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 19: 57-66.


  1. Azam, F. 1998. Microbial control of oceanic carbon flux: The plot thickens. Science 280: 694-696.